Modeling: Learning from Others

 Modeling is the "changes in behavior, thinking, or emotions that happen through observing another person-- a model" (Woolfolk).

Modeling, or observational learning, is effected by six factors:

  1. Developmental Status - where you are in your development in order to do a certain task (examples: Attention, memory capacity, transfer abilities, etc.)
    An example of this might be that a typical 2nd grader wouldn't be able to take a college Psychology class because of developmental reasons...they aren't mentally ready.
  2. Model Prestige/Competence - If a model is thought to be good, then it's more likely that it will be imitated. An example of this might be that my friend Nate knows how amazing a soccer player Cristiano Ronaldo is, so he's more likely to imitate him rather than me...who couldn't play soccer to save my life!
  3. Vicarious Consequence - if you see the consequences of others, you will be less likely to repeat the same behavior...If Cheyenne gets reprimanded for stealing a cookie out of the cookie jar, you might think twice before doing the same.
  4. Outcome Expectations - a behavior is more likely to be repeated if the outcome was positive the first time. So, if Danielle studies for a test and gets a good grade, she's more likely to study again.
  5. Goal Setting - If you see a model obtaining a goal, then you are more likely to do the same.
  6. Self-efficacy - People attend to models when they believe they are capable of learning. It's the thought of "If they can do it, I can do it!"
All of these affect observational learning!

This little boy has no doubt observed his father shaving and wishes to imitate the behavior! ...Modeling!

 
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